crystallisation test performed on stones

  • Estimating the Mechanical Properties of Travertine Building …

    In this study, multivariate regression analysis was performed for estimating the mechanical properties of travertine building stones after salt crystallization test. For this purpose, 12 travertine samples were selected and their physical and mechanical properties (density, porosity, uniaxial compressive strength, Brazilian tensile strength, and P-wave velocity) were determined.

  • Effect of salt crystallization on weathering of pyroclastic …

    Salt crystallization is the most significant factor in the degradation of the natural stones used in cultural and historical structures. Stones decay partially or fully as a result of this exposure. This study is the investigation of the degradation of historical monuments (underground cities and semi-underground settlements) carved in pyroclastic rocks in Cappadocian Region which takes part ...

  • (PDF) Effect of salt crystallization on stones of historical …

    However, the limited conditions of the salt crystallization test (i.e. only 20 wetting-drying cycles) were not sufficient to detect the complete behavior of the two stones towards the salt weathering.

  • Durability of building stones against artificial salt …

    Salts have been known as the most powerful weathering agents, especially when combined with frost action. Salt crystallization test along with freezing-thawing test and acid immersion test was carried out to assess the durability of building stones against weathering. Granite, limestone, marble and basalt were sampled from different quarries in south Korea for this study. One cycle of ...

  • CONSOLIDATION OF DETERIORATED CARBONATE STONES …

    MIP. Ion chromatography (IC) was performed to identify soluble salts in the samples where salt crystallization ageing test was carried out to identify the salt content that could remain after the ageing test by the determination of some anions (F-, Cl, NO 2, NO 3

  • (PDF) Microtextural and microstructural influence on the …

    Mechanical test ples representative of different degree of crystallization damages. In detail, test have been performed on 20 cubic samples of 7 cm The mechanical properties of the rock, and in particular the in edge; with step of almost two

  • 1. Introduction

    CaOx crystallization experiments performed in the presence of UM and HAP suggest that under special conditions UM coated RPL can give rise to stone formation by crystal AGN during crystalluria [10]. However, the question of how during phases of urinary supersaturation stones develop on kidney calcifications and how this process can be prevented is not answered definitively [ 21 ].

  • Role of pore structure in salt crystallisation in …

     · Laboratory driven crystallisation of sodium sulphate and sodium chloride from concentrated solution in unsaturated porous stones has been performed. This contributes to a better understanding of the mechanisms by which salts crystallise and as a consequence limit the durability of porous materials which has an impact on buildings, civil constructions, and historical monuments.

  • Alteration kinetics of natural stones due to sodium sulfate …

    To verify whether sodium sulfate can also be so destructive in field conditions, we have performed crystallization tests consisting of a single isothermal drying event. Three natural stones, relevant for the architectural heritage, were used for the purpose: Bentheimer sandstone, Ançã limestone, and a current Portuguese limestone of low porosity.

  • PHYSICAL TESTS ON STONES

    DIFFERENT TYPES OF TESTS ACID TEST ATTRITION TEST ABSORPTION TEST BRAD''S TEST CRUSHING STRENGTH TEST CRYSTALLIZATION TEST FREEZING AND THAWING TEST HARDNESS TEST IMPACT TEST 1. ATTRITION TEST THIS TEST IS DONE TO FIND OUT THE RATE OF WEAR OF STONES, WHICH ARE USED IN ROAD CONSTRUCTION.

  • Artificial weathering of Spanish granites subjected to salt crystallization …

    Artificial weathering of Spanish granites subjected to salt crystallization tests: Surface roughness quantification P. Lopez-Arce a.*, M.J. Varas-Muriel a.c, B. Fernandez-Revuelta b, M. Alvarez de Buergo a, R. Fort a, C. Perez-Soba c • Grnpo de Petrologfa ap/icada a la Conservaci6n del Patrimonio, Instituto de Geologfa Econ6mica (CSIC-UCM), Jose Antonio Navais 2, 28040, Madrid, Spain

  • Tests for Stones Devals attrition testing machine Stones …

    Tests for Stones Crushing Test: The compressive strength of stone is found out with the help of this test. The sample of stone is cut into cubes of size 40 mm x 40 mm x 40 mm. The sides of cubes are finely dressed and finished.The minimum of three samples are tested.tested.

  • What are the Qualities of a Good Building Stone?

    4. Crystallisation Test: In this test, at least four cubes of stone with side as 40 mm are taken. They are dried for 72 hours and weighed. They are then immersed in 14 per cent solution of Na 2 SO 4 for 2 hours. They are dried at 100 C and weighed. The difference

  • Acoustic emission monitoring to study sodium sulphate …

    In the present study, acoustic emission monitoring of salt crystallization tests performed on monumental stones was carried out in order to determine the deterioration processes occurring during the test. The studied materials were porous carbonate stones from

  • Testing of Building Stones

    Crystallization test: To determine the durability or weathering quality of the stone. A sample of stone is immersed in solution of sodium sulphate at room temperature and dried in hot air. The process of wetting and drying is carried out for two hours; the difference in weight if any is recorded.

  • Estimating the Mechanical Properties of Travertine Building Stones Due to Salt Crystallization …

    study, multivariate regression analysis was performed for estimating the mechanical properties of travertine building stones after salt crystallization test. For this purpose, 12 travertine samples were selected and their physical and mechanical Brazilian tensile ...

  • What are the Qualities of a Good Building Stone?

    4. Crystallisation Test: In this test, at least four cubes of stone with side as 40 mm are taken. They are dried for 72 hours and weighed. They are then immersed in 14 per cent solution of Na 2 SO 4 for 2 hours. They are dried at 100 C and weighed. The difference

  • Tests on Stones | Crushing Strength Test, Water Absorption …

    Tests on Stones To determine the required properties of stones, the following tests Could be conducted: (a) Crushing Strength Test (b) Water Absorption Test (c) Abrasion Test (d) Impact Test (e) Acid Test Crushing Strength Test of Stone For conducting […]

  • Testing of Building Stones

    Acid Test On Stone These Test Useful To Confirm Power Of Stones To Withstand Atmospheric Actions, Gases And Acid Flumes. To Check Weathering Resistance Of Stones Acid Test Performed. Acid Test Not Performed On Limestone And Usually Performed …

  • Journals | Oxford Academic

    The salt crystallization test was performed according to the UNE-EN 12370 (2001) standard. Fifteen cycles were carried out on three samples per stone. Samples were the same shape and size as in the freeze-thaw test.

  • The time of tests : salt crystallisation | Stone Specialist

    The salt crystallisation test used to provoke some of the strongest arguments in the stone industry, when it was believed to be an indicator of stone durability. Schaffer credits Brard (1828) as being the first exponent of salt crystallisation testing but it was from Schaffer''s work for the Building Research Station (now the BRE) that the current version of the salt crystallisation test …

  • (PDF) Effect of salt crystallization on stones of historical …

    The chemical weathering effect of salt crystallization on these stones was measured on the laboratory conditions (in most cases, used samples were very small). For this purpose, the dry weight loss (DWL) test was conducted. The rocks of dacite, andesite and

  • Role of pore structure in salt crystallisation in unsaturated …

     · Laboratory driven crystallisation of sodium sulphate and sodium chloride from concentrated solution in unsaturated porous stones has been performed. This contributes to a better understanding of the mechanisms by which salts crystallise and as a consequence limit the durability of porous materials which has an impact on buildings, civil constructions, and historical monuments.

  • (PDF) Effect of Salt Crystallization on the Building Stones …

    Zedef and Ünal (2010), and Zedef et al. (2011) studied saltweathering of building stones used in the region and determined that Gödene travertine had a high resistance to crystallization of salt.

  • ARTICLES The chemomechanics of crystallization during …

    ARTICLES The chemomechanics of crystallization during rewetting of limestone impregnated with sodium sulfate Rosa M. Espinosa-Marzala) Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544; and Laboratory of ...

  • Testing Of Stones

    This test is used to test the cementing material of sand stone. Crystallization Test (IS 1126): Three test pieces of 50 mm diameter and 50 mm height are dried for 24 hours and are weighed (W1). The specimens are suspended in 14 per cent sodium sulphate solution (density 1.055 kg/m3) for 16 to 18 hours at room temperature (20 o to 30 o C).

  • ARTICLES The chemomechanics of crystallization during …

    ARTICLES The chemomechanics of crystallization during rewetting of limestone impregnated with sodium sulfate Rosa M. Espinosa-Marzala) Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544; and Laboratory of ...

  • (PDF) Effect of salt crystallization on stones of historical …

    However, the limited conditions of the salt crystallization test (i.e. only 20 wetting-drying cycles) were not sufficient to detect the complete behavior of the two stones towards the salt weathering.

  • Building stones of Edinburgh: tests and properties

    Acid immersion test [] Stones containing calcium carbonate, i.e. limestones and some sandstones are susceptible to attack from the weak acid present in rainfall, particularly in urban areas. A dry sample of the stone is immersed in a 20% solution of sulphuric []

  • Acoustic emission monitoring to study sodium sulphate …

    In the present study, acoustic emission monitoring of salt crystallization tests performed on monumental stones was carried out in order to determine the deterioration processes occurring during the test. The studied materials were porous carbonate stones from

  • Durability of building stones against artificial salt …

    Salts have been known as the most powerful weathering agents, especially when combined with frost action. Salt crystallization test along with freezing-thawing test and acid immersion test was carried out to assess the durability of building stones against weathering. Granite, limestone, marble and basalt were sampled from different quarries in south Korea for this study. One cycle of ...

  • Tests on Building Stones

     · Crystalline Test on Building Stone At least four cubes of stone with side as 40mm are taken. They are dried for 72 hrs and weighed. They are then immersed in 14% solution of Na2SO4 for 2 hours.

  • Estimating the Mechanical Properties of Travertine Building …

    In this study, multivariate regression analysis was performed for estimating the mechanical properties of travertine building stones after salt crystallization test. For this purpose, 12 travertine samples were selected and their physical and mechanical properties (density, porosity, uniaxial compressive strength, Brazilian tensile strength, and P-wave velocity) were determined.

  • STONE PROPERTIES AND DAMAGE INDUCED BY SALT …

    stone material, the damage induced by the crystallisation of salt in the stones seems to be dependent on their proportion of micropores and free porosity. Durability estimators for the evaluation of the weathering resistance of stone were consequently developed.

  • Testing of stones

     · • Hardness test: The hardness test is conducted on Dory''s testing machine. Coefficient of hardness= 20-loss of mass in gm/3 Alternatively the hardness test may be performed by scratching the stone with a knife on Mohr''s scale. 19. • Impact test: Is 20.

  • Journals | Oxford Academic

    The salt crystallization test was performed according to the UNE-EN 12370 (2001) standard. Fifteen cycles were carried out on three samples per stone. Samples were the same shape and size as in the freeze-thaw test.

  • (PDF) Microtextural and microstructural influence on the …

    Mechanical test ples representative of different degree of crystallization damages. In detail, test have been performed on 20 cubic samples of 7 cm The mechanical properties of the rock, and in particular the in edge; with step of almost two

  • Alteration kinetics of natural stones due to sodium sulfate …

    To verify whether sodium sulfate can also be so destructive in field conditions, we have performed crystallization tests consisting of a single isothermal drying event. Three natural stones, relevant for the architectural heritage, were used for the purpose: Bentheimer sandstone, Ançã limestone, and a current Portuguese limestone of low porosity.

  • Evalution of Salt Crystallisation Effects on Artificial Marble

    Salt Crystallisation Test Salt crystallization test were carried out suggested by TS 12370 [4]. For the experiments, 6 specimens 40 ± 1 mm were prepared and subjected to %14 Na 2 SO 4.10 H 2 O, solutions during 30 days. Before beginning the cycle, theo

  • PHYSICAL TESTS ON STONES

    DIFFERENT TYPES OF TESTS ACID TEST ATTRITION TEST ABSORPTION TEST BRAD''S TEST CRUSHING STRENGTH TEST CRYSTALLIZATION TEST FREEZING AND THAWING TEST HARDNESS TEST IMPACT TEST 1. ATTRITION TEST THIS TEST IS DONE TO FIND OUT THE RATE OF WEAR OF STONES, WHICH ARE USED IN ROAD CONSTRUCTION.

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